Cai-Cheng Lu received Ph.D degree in 1995 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in Electrical Engineering.

From 1995 to 1997, he was a Research Scientist at the Center for Computational Electromagnetics, where he participated in the development of FISC, a multilevel fast multipole accelerated integral equation solver for calculating electromagnetic wave scattering from large and complex structures. He developed a near-field resonance decoupling algorithm that significantly reduces the number of iterations for problems with deep open-ended cavities. He also had a visiting assistant professor appointment in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

In May 1997, he joined Demaco, Inc., as a research scientist. In Demaco, he worked on Xpatch feature development and test including frequency domain hybridization, evaluation of near-field calculation code NPATCH and integration of NPATCH with TRAP for real target end-game modeling, and scattering center (both mono-static and bi-static) validation and calculation.

He was the recipient of an NSF Career Award in 2001, a Young Investigator Award from the Office of Naval Research in 2000.

Currently he is an associate professor at the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Kentucky. His research interests include electromatnetic wave scattering and interaction, inverse scattering, fast algorithms for computational electromagnetics, antenna analysis and design.

Dr. Lu is a senior member of IEEE and a member of Phi Kappa Phi.

The publications authored or coauthored by Dr. Lu are listed below.


  1. W.C. Chew, J.M. Song, C.C. Lu, R. Wagner, J.H. Lin, H. Gan, and M. Nasir, "Fast algorithms for solving electromagnetic scattering problems," The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications, Volume 96: Wave Propagation in Complex Media. George Papanicolaou (ed.) Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc. pp. 1-22, 1997.
  2. C. C. Lu, "Hybrid Surface and Volume Integral Equation", Chapter 11 of "Fast algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics", W. C. Chew (ed.), Printice-Hall, June 2000.


  1. W. C. Chew and C. C. Lu, ``A recursive algorithm to compute the wave-scattering solution of a finite-strip array using an efficient plane-wave basis,'' Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 146-148, March 1992.
  2. G. Otto, C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``Short-backfire antenna modeling,'' IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat. , vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1434-1438, Nov. 1992.
  3. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``Electromagnetic scattering of finite strip array on a dielectric slab,'' IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 97--100, Jan. 1993.
  4. W. C. Chew and C. C. Lu, ``NEPAL--An algorithm for solving the volume integral equation,'' Microwave and Optical Technology Letters , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 185-188, March 5, 1993.
  5. W. C. Chew and C. C. Lu, ``The use of Huygens' equivalence principle for solving the volume integral equation of scattering,'' IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 897-904, July 1993.
  6. W. C. Chew and C. C. Lu, ``A fast algorithm to compute the wave scattering solution of a large strip,'' J. Computational Physics, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 378-387, Aug. 1993.
  7. C. M. Herzinger, C. C. Lu, T. A. DeTemple and W. C. Chew, ``The semiconductor waveguide facet reflectivity problem,'' IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 2273-2281, Aug. 1993.
  8. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``A recursive aggregation method for the computation of electromagnetic scattering by randomly distributed particles,'' Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 6, no. 13, pp. 774-777, Oct. 1993.
  9. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``Fast algorithm for solving hybrid integral equations,'' IEE Proceedings-H, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 455-460, Dec. 1993.
  10. W. C. Chew, C. C. Lu and Y. M. Wang, ``Efficient computation of three dimensional scattering of vector electromagnetic waves,'' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 11, pp. 1528-1537, 1994.
  11. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``A multilevel fast multipole algorithm for solving boundary integral equation of wave scattering,'' Electronics Letters, pp. 466-470, July 1994.
  12. C. C. Lu, W. C. Chew and L. Tsang, ``The application of recursive aggregate T-matrix algorithm in the Monte-Carlo simulations of the extinction rate of random distribution of particles,'' Radio Science, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 25--28, Jan. 1995.
  13. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``The use of Huygens' equivalence principle for solving 3D volume integral equation of scattering,'' IEEE Trans. on Antenna and Propagat., vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 500-507, May 1995.
  14. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``Fast far-field approximation for calculating the RCS of large objects,'' Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 238-241, April 1995.
  15. W. C. Chew, G. Otto, W. H. Weedon, J. H. Lin, C. C. Lu, Y. M. Wang, and M. Moghaddam, ``Nonlinear Diffraction Tomography-The Use of Inverse Scattering for Imaging,'' Int. J. Imaging Sys. Tech., vol. 7, pp. 16-24, 1996.
  16. W.C. Chew and C.C. Lu, ``The recursive aggregated interaction matrix algorithm,'' Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1483-1486, Dec. 1995.
  17. C. C. Lu and Q. H. Liu, ``A Three-Dimensional Dyadic Green's Function for Elastic Waves in Multilayer Cylindrical Structures,'' The Journal of the Acoustic Society of America , 98(5), pt.1, pp. 2825-2835, Nov. 1995.
  18. C. C. Lu, J. H. Lin, W. C. Chew, and G. Otto, '`Imaging reconstruction with acoustic measurement using distorted Born iteration method,'' Ultrasonic Imaging, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 140-156, April 1996.
  19. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, ``A near-resonance de-coupling approach (NRDA) for scattering solution of near-resonant structures,'' IEEE Trans. Antennas propagat., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1857-1862, Dec. 1997.
  20. W. C. Chew, S. Koc, J.M. Song, C.C. Lu, and E. Michielssen, ``A Succinct Way to Diagonalize the Translation Matrix in Three-Dimensions, '', Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett., vol. 15, mo. 3, pp. 144-147, June 20, 1997.
  21. X. Sheng, J. M. Jin, J. Song, C. C. Lu, and W.C. Chew, '`On the formulation of hybrid finite-element and boundary-integral methods for 3-D scattering,'' IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 303-311, March 1998.
  22. J. S. Zhao, W.C. Chew, C.C. Lu, E. Michielssen, and J.M. Song, "Thin-stratified medium fast-multipole algorithm for solving microstrip structures," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 395-403, April 1998.
  23. W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, C. C. Lu, E. Michielssen, J. M. Song, ``Fast solution methods in electromagnetics,'' IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 533-543, March 1997.
  24. C. C. Lu and W.C. Chew, "Processing Ipswich data with the local shape function method," IEEE Antennas Propagation Magazine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 51-53, June 1996.
  25. J. M. Song, C. C. Lu, and W.C. Chew, "MLFMA for electromagnetic scattering by large complex objects," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1488-1493, Oct. 1997.
  26. J. M. Song, C. C. Lu, W. C. Chew, and S. W. Lee, "Fast Illinois solver code (FISC) solves problems of unprecedented size at the Center for Computational Electromagnetics, University of Illinois," IEEE Antennas Propag. Magazine, (invited), vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 27-34, June 1998.
  27. W. C. Chew, A. Ergin, V. Jandhyala, J. Jin, C.C. Lu, E. Michielssen, B. Shanker, X. Sheng, J.M. Song, and J.S. Zhao, "Fast Electromagnetic Scattering Algorithms Using Multilevel and Hybrid Techniques," SIAM Proceedings on Mathematical and Numerical Aspects of Wave Propagation (invited), pp. 118-122, June 1-4, 1998.
  28. Xing Qing Sheng, Jian-Ming Jin, Jiming Song, Weng Cho Chew, and Cai-Cheng Lu, ``Solution of combined-field integral equation using multilevel fast multipole algorithm for scattering by homogeneous bodies, '' IEEE Trans. Antennas propagat., no. 11, vol. 46, pp. 1718-1726, Nov. 1998.
  29. J. M. Jin, F. Ling, S. Carolan, J.M. Song, W.C. Gibson, W.C. Chew, C.C. Lu, and R. Kipp, "A hybrid SBR/MoM for analysis of scattering by small protrusion on a large conducting body," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagat. Vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 1349-1357, Sept. 1998.
  30. J. L. Ma, W.C. Chew, C.C. Lu, and J.M. Song, "Image reconstruction from TE scattering data using strong permittivity theory," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagat., Vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 860-867, June 2000.
  31. C. C. Lu and W. C. Chew, "A coupled integral equation technique for the calculation of electromagnetic scattering from composite metallic and dielectric targets," IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagat. vol. 48, pp. 1866-1868, Dec. 2000.
  32. C. C. Lu, H. Z. Li, and D. Gao, "A combined electromagnetic and heat transfer analysis of rapid rewarming of cryopreserved tissues," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 2185-2190, Nov. 2000.
  33. C. C. Lu, "Indoor radio wave propagation modeling by multilevel fast multipole algorithm," Microwave Optical Wave Technology Letters, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 168-175, May 2001.
  34. C. C. Lu and X. G. Zhong, "Image reconstruction of two-dimensional objects inside dielectric walls", Microwave and Optical Wave Technology Letters, Vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 91-95, Jan. 2003.
  35. J. Lee, J. Zhang, and C. C. Lu, "Incomplete LU preconditioning for large scale dense complex linear systems from electromagnetic wave scattering problems," J. Comp. Physics, vol. 185, pp. 158-175, 2003.
  36. C. C. Lu, "A Fast Algorithm Based on Volume Integral Equation for Analysis of Arbitrarily Shaped Dielectric Radomes," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 606-612, March 2003.
  37. C. C. Lu and C. Luo, "Comparison of iteration convergences of SIE and VSIE for solving electromagnetic scattering problems for coated objects", Radio Sci., 38(2), 1028, 2003.
  38. S. Gedney and C. C. Lu, "High-order solution for the electromagnetic scattering by inhomogeneous dielectric bodies," Radio Science, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 15-1 to 15-8, 2003.
  39. W. C. Chew, H. Y. Chao, T. J. Cui, C. C. Lu, S. Ohnuki, Y. C. Pan, J. M. Song, S. Velamparambil, and J. S. Zhao, "Fast integral equation solvers in computational electromagnetics of complex structures," Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, vol. 27, pp. 803-823, 2003.
  40. J. Lee, J. Zhang, and C. C. Lu, "Performance of preconditioned Krylov iterative methods for solving hybrid equations in electromagnetics," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (Special issue), vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 54-61, Nov. 2003.
  41. C. C. Lu and Chun Yu,"Computation of input impedance of printed antennas with finite size and arbitrarily shaped dielectric substrate and ground plane,? IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 615-619, Feb. 2004.
  42. J. Lee, J. Zhang, and C. C. Lu, "Sparse Inverse Preconditioning of Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm for Hybrid Integral Equations in Electromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2277-2287, Sept. 2004.
  43. S. Gedney, A. M. Zhu, and C. C. Lu, "Study of Mixed-Order Basis Functions for the Locally-Corrected Nystrom Method",IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2996-3004, Nov. 2004.